Abstraction in programming: Taming the ones and zeros

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We can now accomplish some pretty incredible things with technology. What had once seemed wildly futuristic is now becoming reality.

Say, for example, you wanted to develop a smart home system that would open and close your windows when certain conditions were present. You would need to equip your windows with temperature and moisture sensors and then go about programming the system, so the windows would adjust according to the weather. However, simply telling the system to open the windows when it’s pleasantly warm and close the windows when it’s raining heavily wouldn’t work. These instructions leave far too much open to interpretation. The system would need very specific input, such as temperature thresholds, exact moisture levels, etc., to perform properly. The same goes for any programmed system.

When looking at modern applications, systems and capabilities, it’s hard to believe that to work properly, all the programming that goes into them still has to be rendered into bits and bytes composed into strings of binary code. From the coolest looking smartphone app, to the most sophisticated enterprise software, and even what seem like futuristic technologies, such as smart home features and autonomous vehicles — all require their instructions to be delivered in binary.

Why is this? Computers don’t work well with ambiguity and nuance. Binary provides the completely unambiguous instructions of either “off” (zero) or “on” (one). They use these simple binary states as the basis for logical computations, which render the computer’s circuits as either “on” or “off.” These simple circuits are used to create logic gates (for example, AND, OR, and NOT), which allow the programmer to create operations and manipulate data in a variety of ways. This is then duplicated billions of times to create modern CPUs.

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Hearing new voices: Anderson Ranch launches fall Latinx local community arts programming

Kids about to play Crosser or La Migra at the Denver Art Museum’s exhibition, ReVisión: Artwork in the Americas. These video clip game titles were demonstrated together with other art works that experienced been made in historical, colonial and present-day strategies.
Courtesy of Justin Ankenbauer

Anderson Ranch Art Heart has unveiled a new set of courses specific at strengthening solutions to the regional community by Latino arts and tradition offerings. The multi-faceted plan will run for a few decades, with the target of uniting artists and artwork fanatics all over a shared curiosity in Latino arts and lifestyle.

“I think the main of the programming is seriously to get at the lack of representation of Latinx artists in what we take into consideration mainstream art programs and in the art environment,” mentioned Olivia Martin, Latinx arts group leader and children’s coordinator at Anderson Ranch Arts Center.

Numerous of the plans scheduled are aimed at addressing the deficiency of illustration of Latinx artists and contemplating voices that have however to be listened to, Martinez mentioned.



“We’re striving to deal with these shortcomings in a group-primarily based way,” she stated. “Art and our understanding of our globe can support us better link with who we are, our local community and the people today that make up our local community.”

According to the Anderson Ranch Arts Heart internet site, packages under this initiative consist of the Latinx Visiting Artists Application, Instructor Schooling Application, Latinx Artwork Curriculum, Community Celebration, Latinx Youth Summer Workshop Scholarships and a lot more outreach plans.



Artist Ricky Armendariz will be viewing the Anderson Ranch Arts Middle Oct. 2-15.
Courtesy of Ricky Armendariz

On Oct. 8, Anderson Ranch Arts Heart is hosting Discovering Your Voice: Society and Community in Latinx Art. This dialogue, moderated by Anderson Ranch Arts Centre board of administrators member Alex Sánchez, options a panel of Latino artists, educators and community leaders who will focus on the influence of Latino society, background and ordeals on imaginative communities and voices.

Sánchez, the son of two Mexican immigrants, grew up in El Jebel and attended Basalt Large College.

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Colleges prepare to expand programming when Pell Grants are reinstated for prison education in 2023

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Colleges across the country are expecting increased interest in prison education programs following the return of Pell Grant eligibility for incarcerated people, which is set for July 2023. With less than a year to go, program leaders are preparing for an influx of enrollees and reconsidering how they serve students who are in prison.

Colleges have both altruistic and financial motivations for expanding their prison education programs, according to Rebecca Villarreal, senior director at Jobs for the Future, a nonprofit focused on workforce and education systems.

“Some institutions have a really clear social justice mission and a commitment to addressing issues of equity. For other institutions, we certainly recognize that enrollment declines are a challenge for colleges and universities. Through these programs, there’s the opportunity to enroll additional students,” Villarreal said.

New guidelines

Under the FAFSA Simplification Act passed at the end of 2020, all incarcerated students will be able to apply for federal Pell Grants for the first time since 1994. With the reinstated Pell program comes new rules for colleges to follow. 

Oversight entities will judge whether colleges with prison education programs are acting in students’ best interest. At federal prisons, the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Prisons will oversee the outcomes. At state prisons and jails, it will be the state corrections agencies and the municipal governments, respectively.

Success metrics include post-release job placement rates, transferability of credits toward degree programs at other institutions, and availability and quality of academic and career advising services.

Because college leaders can’t check in with incarcerated students as casually as they can with the rest of their student body, they are gearing up for the challenge of tracking progress with limited contact and minimal emails and phone calls, according to Villarreal. Often, that means more staff.

“Folks have asked, like, ‘How many students per staff member should I allocate?’ or, ‘How will I know when I need more people?'” Villarreal said. “There are lots of outstanding questions and they’re each so facility-

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What you need to know about Carbon

Carbon is a new programming language designed by Google engineers as a successor to C++. Here’s what software builders require to know about it.

Previously this year, a new programming language referred to as Carbon was unveiled. It is a devices programming language very first released on 19 July by Chandler Carruth, a software package engineer at Google, at the CppNorth conference in Canada.

Even though it is however at an experimental stage, Carbon could act as a successor to C++. But what do developers have to have to know about it? To obtain out extra, we spoke to Norway-primarily based technology and software package enhancement author Erik Engheim.

He mentioned at the second, Carbon is at a pretty early stage. “What we have is an early incomplete specification together with an interpreter identified as Carbon Explorer, which allows you to check out components of the language,” he explained.

“Thus when assessing what Carbon could be for builders, we have to search at the present-day language specification and the very long-time period ambitions of the language.”

What helps make Carbon different?

New programming languages usually arise. For case in point, Engheim mentioned Scala and Clojure are languages that were being created with the strategy of staying able to reuse current Java code in new and fashionable languages.

On the other hand, adopting these languages for present Java developers “never labored out that well” since it was hard to operate a job combined with the two Java and Scala.

But then a new language, Kotlin, arrived. “It picked up numerous of the fantastic ideas of Scala, but packaged in a way that Java builders can easily understand. Kotlin is semantically equivalent enough to Java that it can be dropped into a Java challenge and you can effortlessly contact Kotlin code from Java and Java code from Kotlin.”

Engheim pointed out that Swift succeeded for equivalent motives by getting a new language developed exclusively to blend nicely with Goal-C.

“No require to make a complete dedication to a new language. A task could effortlessly exist as a blend of Swift and

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Data Oriented Programming in Java

Key Takeaways

  • Project Amber has brought a number of new features to Java in recent years. While each of these features are self-contained, they are also designed to work together. Specifically, records, sealed classes, and pattern matching work together to enable easier data-oriented programming in Java.
  • OOP encourages us to model complex entities and processes using objects, which combine state and behavior. OOP is at its best when it is defining and defending boundaries. 
  • Java’s strong static typing and class-based modeling can still be tremendously useful for smaller programs, just in different ways.
  • Data-oriented programming encourages us to model data as (immutable) data, and keep the code that embodies the business logic of how we act on that data separately. Records, sealed classes, and pattern matching, make that easier.
  • When we’re modeling complex entities, OO techniques have a lot to offer us. But when we’re modeling simple services that process plain, ad-hoc data, the techniques of data-oriented programming may offer us a straighter path.
  • The techniques of OOP and data-oriented programming are not at odds; they are different tools for different granularities and situations. We can freely mix and match them as we see fit.

Project Amber has brought a number of new features to Java in recent years — local variable type inference, text blocks, records, sealed classes, pattern matching, and more. While each of these features are self-contained, they are also designed to work together. Specifically, records, sealed classes, and pattern matching work together to enable easier data-oriented programming in Java. In this article, we’ll cover what is meant by this term and how it might affect how we program in Java.

Object-oriented programming

The goal of any programming paradigm is to manage complexity. But complexity comes in many forms, and not all paradigms handle all forms of complexity equally well. Most programming paradigms have a one-sentence slogan of the form “Everything is a …”; for OOP, this is obviously “everything is an object.” Functional programming says “everything is a function”; actor-based systems say “everything is an actor”, etc. (Of course,

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